Monday 22nd December 2014
NEWS TICKER: MONDAY, DECEMBER 22ND 2014: NASDAQ welcomed 313* new listings this year, including 189 initial public offerings (IPOs), worth a combined $22bn -- more IPOs than any other US exchange, representing a 50% increase from the 126 IPOs in 2013. The exchange says that 62% of the top 100 best performing IPOs overall this year, including eight of the top ten, listed on its main board – Meanwhile, TMX Group today announced that Toronto Stock Exchange (TSX) set a new daily volume record on December 19th with 1,535,887,985 shares traded, which surpassed the previous record of 895,769,152, $20,213,746,759. The previous record of $19,278,924,809 was set on September 18th 2008.which was set on December 19th 2008 - Fitch Ratings has revised the Outlook for both Bahrain's Long-term foreign and local currency Issuer Default Ratings (IDR) to Negative from Stable and affirmed the IDRs at 'BBB' and 'BBB+', respectively. The issue ratings on Bahrain's senior unsecured foreign and local currency bonds have also been affirmed at 'BBB' and 'BBB+', respectively. The agency has simultaneously affirmed Bahrain's Country Ceiling at 'BBB+' and Short-term foreign currency IDR at 'F3' - Finnish IT company Neonella Oy (Ltd) is launching a service platform that enables the use of bitcoins, as part of interactive advertising, for example in TV-programs. The service also makes bitcoin transactions possible from media companies or advertisers to consumers. Neonella is currently seeking funding for the platform through a crowdfunding campaign. The payment interface developed enables ordering of goods or services within video or TV programs. It is also possible to vote, donate and encourage the viewers to tell about their opinions as part of the content. The same technology works in internet marketing and banners as well as in TV- and video content. - Citi is reportedly stepping in to absorb the energy and metals commodity-trading books of Credit Suisse. Citi's acquisitions will be added to the trading books it took on from Deutsche Bank this year - Credit Suisse Group meanwhile is focusing on equity trading. The banking group is said to be working with Intercontinental Exchange to restore more trading on the exchange. ICE is proposing a compromise in which exchanges agree to reduce stock-trading prices and banks agree to a rule requiring more trading on exchanges, reports the Wall Street Journal - Looking beyond post FED rate hike actions should be the key for investors to explore deep values at reasonable earnings momentum thinks Is Yatirim in Istanbul. The firm’s analysis think that the world will have to endure “a long period of low-growth, low-environment double whammy, which may not necessarily bad for Turkey [which] has hunger for foreign savings at least for another five years – Private equity firms Lombard Investments and LeapFrog Investments have bought just under 11% of the shares of Thai insurer Syn Mun Kong (SMK) for $57.5m from the Royal & Sun Alliance Group (4.35m shares at around $13.20 each), according to a regulatory filing - VTB Capital has successfully completed the RUB 2.5 billion securitisation deal for AK BARS BANK mortgage portfolio​ as part of the Vnesheconombank's programme for investing in affordable housing and mortgages in 2010-2013 - According to the US government technology news agency, North Korea has denied the Obama administration's allegations that it launched the hack attack against Sony Pictures Entertainment and has demanded that a joint investigation with the US into the incident be launched. The secretive communist regime, based in Pyongyang, also promised there would be "grave consequences" if the United States failed to agree to the joint probe. - Fitch Ratings has revised the Outlooks on Bahrain's Long-term foreign and local currency Issuer Default Ratings (IDR) to Negative from Stable and affirmed the IDRs at 'BBB' and 'BBB+', respectively. The issue ratings on Bahrain's senior unsecured foreign and local currency bonds have also been affirmed at 'BBB' and 'BBB+', respectively. The agency has simultaneously affirmed Bahrain's Country Ceiling at 'BBB+' and Short-term foreign currency IDR at 'F3' - Finnish IT company Neonella Oy (Ltd) is launching a service platform that enables the use of bitcoins, as part of interactive advertising, for example in TV-programs. The service also makes bitcoin transactions possible from media companies or advertisers to consumers. Neonella is currently seeking funding for the platform through a crowdfunding campaign. The payment interface developed enables ordering of goods or services within video or TV programs. It is also possible to vote, donate and encourage the viewers to tell about their opinions as part of the content. The same technology works in internet marketing and banners as well as in TV- and video content. - Citi is reportedly stepping in to absorb the energy and metals commodity-trading books of Credit Suisse. Citi's acquisitions will be added to the trading books it took on from Deutsche Bank this year - Credit Suisse Group meanwhile is focusing on equity trading. The banking group is said to be working with Intercontinental Exchange to restore more trading on the exchange. ICE is proposing a compromise in which exchanges agree to reduce stock-trading prices and banks agree to a rule requiring more trading on exchanges, reports the Wall Street Journal - Looking beyond post FED rate hike actions should be the key for investors to explore deep values at reasonable earnings momentum thinks Is Yatirim in Istanbul. The firm’s analysis think that the world will have to endure “a long period of low-growth, low-environment double whammy, which may not necessarily bad for Turkey [which] has hunger for foreign savings at least for another five years – Private equity firms Lombard Investments and LeapFrog Investments have bought just under 11% of the shares of Thai insurer Syn Mun Kong (SMK) for $57.5m from the Royal & Sun Alliance Group (4.35m shares at around $13.20 each), according to a regulatory filing - VTB Capital has successfully completed the RUB 2.5 billion securitisation deal for AK BARS BANK mortgage portfolio​ as part of the Vnesheconombank's programme for investing in affordable housing and mortgages in 2010-2013.

Are there rational causes for “home bias”?

Wednesday, 02 May 2012 Written by 
Are there rational causes for “home bias”? Savers and investors in every country hold an excessive quantity of domestic securities relative to foreign securities, so-called “home bias”. In the euro-zone, home bias has been growing sharply of late. http://www.ftseglobalmarkets.com/

Savers and investors in every country hold an excessive quantity of domestic securities relative to foreign securities, so-called “home bias”. In the euro-zone, home bias has been growing sharply of late.

Suggested causes for home bias include:

  • holding domestic assets can protect domestic investors against domestic risks such as inflation or exchange-rate depreciation;
  • the benefits of international diversification are small relative to the transaction costs involved in buying foreign assets;
  • and information on domestic assets is of better quality than that on foreign assets.

The scale of the home bias
“Home bias” characterises an excessively high weight of domestic assets in portfolios, relative to what would be optimal, and therefore results in an excessively low weight of foreign assets.



Using Germany and France as examples, 65% of French and German institutional investors’ stock portfolio is in domestic equities while German institutional investors have 53% of their bond portfolio in German bonds. Indeed, French savers as a whole hold three times more French equities than foreign equities while German savers hold almost four times more German equities than they do foreign equities and more German bonds than foreign bonds. And in September 2011, German and French banks held respectively 75% and 42% of their own government’s securities.

Is it possible to find rational explanations of home bias?
There may be irrational explanations for home bias i.e. investors are not penalised by losses on domestic assets as much as by losses on foreign assets and they have a "patriotic" attitude etc. But there may also be rational explanations for home bias such as hedging domestic risks, small benefits of international diversification, and quality of information.

1. Hedging of domestic risks

Investors will hold large portfolios of domestic assets if these assets provide a better hedge against specific domestic risks than foreign assets do.

Exchange rates

Holding euro-zone equities is unlikely to protect investors in the euro-zone against a depreciation of the euro. Indeed, this much is evident when comparing the European stock market with the US stock market. Over the period 2008 to 2012, the European stock market declined relative to the US stock market and the euro depreciated.

Inflation

Certainly, this argument cannot apply to bonds since countries that experience an unexpected increase in inflation normally experience a rise in long-term interest rates, which generates losses for domestic investors – meaning that an internationally diversified bond portfolio would actually be preferable.

In the case of equities, one could think that this is an asset indexed to prices, which therefore provides a hedge against domestic inflation. However, in the case of France and Germany it is quite the opposite as the Price Earnings Ratio is negatively correlated to inflation. Indeed, equities do not provide any protection against domestic inflation, and the reverse is in fact true.

2. Small benefits from international diversification

The idea is that if the benefits of international diversification are smaller than the adjustment costs (transaction costs) incurred when buying foreign assets, investors will abstain from international diversification. If we take the example of euro-zone bond portfolios, one would see that diversification to the euro-zone as a whole in the period 1999-2012 reduces the return and the risk slightly, but in a very limited way.

3. Advantage in terms of information

It is an often-heard argument that the information available for investors is better for domestic assets than for foreign assets – largely because investors have better contacts with company management and their own government.

If this is true, this bias is likely to be far larger for small and mid-sized companies than for large companies that have better information resources. As a result, we should expect larger unexpected (news) shocks for small and mid-caps than for large-caps, and subsequently higher volatility in small and mid-cap indices. Indeed, this appears to be the case. The volatility of large-cap indices has been lower since 2003 than that of small and mid-cap indices.

Patrick Artus

A graduate of Ecole Polytechnique, of Ecole Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Adminstration Economique and of Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris, Patrick Artus is today the Chief Economist at Natixis. He began his career in 1975 where his work included economic forecasting and modelisation. He then worked at the Economics Department of the OECD (1980), before becoming Head of Research at the ENSAE. Thereafter, Patrick taught seminars on research at Paris Dauphine (1982) and was Professor at a number of Universities (including Dauphine, ENSAE, Centre des Hautes Etudes de l'Armement, Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées and HEC Lausanne).

Patrick is now Professor of Economics at University Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne. He combines these responsibilities with his research work at Natixis. Patrick was awarded "Best Economist of the year 1996" by the "Nouvel Economiste", and today is a member of the council of economic advisors to the French Prime Minister. He is also a board member at Total and Ipsos.

Website: cib.natixis.com/research/economic.aspx

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