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NEWS TICKER: WEDNESDAY, APRIL 1st 2015 : The EBRD is considering a credit line of up to €15m to Všeobecná úverová banka a.s. (VUB) in the form of an extension of a €5m existing facility signed in December 2014, bringing the total amount provided to VUB under SlovSEFF III to €20m. This operation will enable VUB to provide sub-loans to companies and residential sector borrowers (housing associations) for energy efficiency and renewable energy investments in the Slovak Republic and provide financing for sustainable energy projects with a focus on reducing greenhouse gas emissions and assist in mitigating high energy and carbon intensity in the region - CMS says it has advised Orifjan Shadiyev, owner of Capital Bank Kazakhstan, on the acquisition of RBS’s business in Kazakhstan (RBSK). The CMS team was led by Graham Conlon, a partner in the corporate and international private equity team, and supported by senior associate Tetyana Dovgan - CBRE Group Inc says it has agreed to acquire the Global WorkPlace Solutions (GWS) business of Johnson Controls Inc. (JCI) for $1.475bn in cash. GWS is a provider of integrated facilities management solutions for occupiers of commercial real estate and has operations around the world – The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) says it has allowed OTC Exchange of India (OTCEI) to exit as a bourse from the nation's securities markets. According to SEBI, OTCEI had complied with the regulator's conditions for exit and is therefore "a fit case to allow exit" from capital markets adding that the bourse had made payment of necessary dues to the regulator, including 10% of the listing fee and the annual regulatory fee. "From the valuation report and undertaking of OTCEI, it is observed that all the known liabilities have been brought out and that there is no other future liability that is known as on date," SEBI said in the order dated March 31. In allowing the exit, SEBI has asked the bourse to change its name and not to use the description ‘Stock Exchange’ or any variant of it and to avoid any representation of present or past affiliation with the stock exchange, in all media. The central government had granted recognition to OTCEI, as a stock exchange on August 23, 1989 initially for a period of 5 years, which was subsequently renewed from time to time. As per SEBI’s rules, a stock exchange, whose annual trading turnover on its platform is less than Rs1,000 crore, can apply for voluntary surrender of recognition and exit, while a bourse which fails to achieve a turnover of Rs 1,000 crore, is subject to a compulsory exit process - Independent subsea remotely operated vehicle (ROV) services provider, ROVOP, has established a Western Hemisphere headquarters and support base in Houston and has hired three ROV industry professionals to lead the business. Scott Wagner, Brett “Gonzo” Eychner and Wayne Betts bring a combined total of more than 100 years’ global experience in the ROV services sector to ROVOP. They join an established management team and staff of 130 based in Aberdeen, Scotland, who have developed ROVOP into a leading player in the ROV field. The company’s client portfolio includes oil & gas, offshore wind and telecommunications companies. Mark Vorenkamp, chairman of ROVOP, said: “ROVOP is changing the market for ROV services. Over the last two decades, ROV technology, capability and service has fallen behind the pace of change seen in other industries. ROVOP’s facility is located in North West Houston on a 1.5 acre site which includes a 4,500 ft2 office and 17,300 ft2 workshop where the company will manage their fleet of FMC Schilling Robotics and SAAB Seaeye ROVs. “The recent mobilisation of two Schilling Ultra-Heavy Duty (UHD) Generation III ROVs, capable of closing a blowout preventer (BOP) within 45 seconds to meet American Petroleum Institute (API) requirements, illustrates ROVOP’s commitment to supporting clients with industry leading technology in the Gulf of Mexico,” says Wagner - The Straits Times Index (STI) ended +0.01 points higher or 0.00% to 3447.02, taking the year-to-date performance to +2.43%. The FTSE ST Mid Cap Index gained +0.02% while the FTSE ST Small Cap Index declined -0.04%. The top active stocks were CapitaLand (unchanged), SingTel (-0.23%), UOB (+0.22%), DBS (+0.15%) and ST Engineering (unchanged). The outperforming sectors today were represented by the FTSE ST Technology Index (+1.13%). The two biggest stocks of the FTSE ST Technology Index are Silverlake Axis (+1.83%) and STATS ChipPAC (unchanged). The underperforming sector was the FTSE ST Basic Materials Index, which declined -1.24% with Midas Holdings’s share price unchanged and Geo Energy Resources’s share price gaining+0.52%. The three most active Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) by value today were the DBXT MSCI Indonesia ETF (+0.14%), LYXOR China H (+0.29%), DBXT FT China 25 ETF (+1.75%).

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The European Review

By Patrick Artus, chief economist at Natixis

Target 2 accounts: The equivalent of currency interventions, and a very good indicator of the risk that the euro may break up

Wednesday, 20 June 2012 Written by 
Target 2 accounts: The equivalent of currency interventions, and a very good indicator of the risk that the euro may break up When the Bundesbank’s (Germany's) Target 2 account (which is positive) increases while another euro-zone country’s Target 2 account becomes more negative, this is equivalent to a German currency intervention aimed at stabilising the exchange rate between Germany and this other country, and therefore at preventing a break-up of the euro. In a completely similar manner, when China accumulates foreign exchange reserves in dollars to prevent an appreciation of the RMB, the People's Bank of China accumulates an asset and the United States a liability, and there is monetary creation (in RMB). So the size of the Target 2 accounts of the national central banks in the euro zone corresponds to the size of the foreign exchange reserves that the euro-zone countries with a strong currency have to accumulate to prevent a break-up of the euro; it is therefore a very good indicator of the risk of a break-up. http://www.ftseglobalmarkets.com/

When the Bundesbank’s (Germany's) Target 2 account (which is positive) increases while another euro-zone country’s Target 2 account becomes more negative, this is equivalent to a German currency intervention aimed at stabilising the exchange rate between Germany and this other country, and therefore at preventing a break-up of the euro. In a completely similar manner, when China accumulates foreign exchange reserves in dollars to prevent an appreciation of the RMB, the People's Bank of China accumulates an asset and the United States a liability, and there is monetary creation (in RMB). So the size of the Target 2 accounts of the national central banks in the euro zone corresponds to the size of the foreign exchange reserves that the euro-zone countries with a "strong currency" have to accumulate to prevent a break-up of the euro; it is therefore a very good indicator of the risk of a break-up.

The size of the Target 2 accounts held by national central banks in the euro zone

Germany and the Netherlands hold substantial Target 2 assets (respectively EUR 650bn and EUR 140bn), while Greece, Spain, Italy and Ireland have substantial Target 2 debts (respectively EUR 98bn, EUR 285bn, EUR 280bn and EUR 117bn).



Fundamentally, these are currency interventions

Let us take, for example, the Germany/Spain pair. If the Bundesbank lends to the Bank of Spain, there is an increase in Germany's positive Target 2 account and in Spain’s negative Target 2 account. This corresponds to a loan from Germany to Spain, or to a purchase of Spanish assets by the German central bank.

If this purchase had not taken place, Spain would be unable to finance its external deficit, and would be forced to pull out of the euro and let its currency depreciate to the point where capital inflows covered its external borrowing requirement.

Therefore, this is the exact equivalent of a currency intervention aimed at ensuring the stability of the exchange rate between Germany and Spain: the country with a "strong currency" buys assets of the country with a "weak currency" to stabilise the exchange rate.

Similarity with the China/United States pair

When China accumulates foreign exchange reserves in dollars to prevent an excessive appreciation of the RMB against the dollar, the People's Bank of China holds US assets and the United States, conversely, has a debt to China.

This operation increases the size of the balance sheet of the People's Bank of China, and therefore leads to monetary creation.

Likewise, when the Bundesbank lends to central banks in the Southern euro-zone countries, and these central banks subsequently lend these funds to the banks in their own countries, there is a creation of monetary base in euros.

Target 2 accounts measure the risk of a break-up of the euro

The size (positive or negative according to the country) of the Target 2 accounts held by the central banks in the euro zone therefore represents the size of the foreign exchange reserves that the euro zone countries with a "strong currency" have to accumulate to ensure the euro’s sustainability ("exchange-rate stability" between euro zone countries). The more the size of these accounts increases, the higher the risk that the euro may break-up.

Positive Target 2 accounts surged from the summer of 2011, and this went hand in hand with a period of pressure on the interest rates on peripheral government bonds and on risk premia on banks.

Patrick Artus

A graduate of Ecole Polytechnique, of Ecole Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Adminstration Economique and of Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris, Patrick Artus is today the Chief Economist at Natixis. He began his career in 1975 where his work included economic forecasting and modelisation. He then worked at the Economics Department of the OECD (1980), before becoming Head of Research at the ENSAE. Thereafter, Patrick taught seminars on research at Paris Dauphine (1982) and was Professor at a number of Universities (including Dauphine, ENSAE, Centre des Hautes Etudes de l'Armement, Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées and HEC Lausanne).

Patrick is now Professor of Economics at University Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne. He combines these responsibilities with his research work at Natixis. Patrick was awarded "Best Economist of the year 1996" by the "Nouvel Economiste", and today is a member of the council of economic advisors to the French Prime Minister. He is also a board member at Total and Ipsos.

Website: cib.natixis.com/research/economic.aspx

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