Sunday 29th November 2015
NEWS TICKER, FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 27TH: The Taiwan Stock Exchange (TWSE) has launched an online ‘Rules & Regulations Directory’, providing international investors and the media with a centralised location for all 238 Taiwan capital market regulations in both English and Chinese. Regulations available via the Directory include rules for: primary and secondary listings, corporate governance, clearing and settlement, margin trading, ETFs, market monitoring and regulation, among others. The Directory features an easy-to-navigate graphical interface, allowing investors to locate regulations by category or by tree structure, as well as a comprehensive search function that automatically suggests laws and regulations based on key words. The English translation of the regulations was provided by multinational law firms -The European Parliament’s negotiation team has informed the European Commission that it is ready to accept a one-year delay of the entry into force of MiFID II. However, this only applies if the Commission finalises the implementing legislation swiftly and thereby takes into account the European Parliament’s priorities. Furthermore, Commission and ESMA need to come up with a clear roadmap on the implementation work and especially for setting up the IT-systems. That’s telling them! - China shares fell 5.5% in trading today; it’s a big fall, the biggest since August. Analysts say it is related to the regulator’s announced determination to enforce good practice on the securities industry. Hong Kong's Hang Seng Index fell 1.9% today and 3% over the week. Elsewhere, Japan shares fell 0.3% after the Nikkei neared the 20000 barrier on Thursday. Australia's S&P/ASX 200 fell 0.2% and South Korea's Kospi slipped 0.1%. The Straits Times Index (STI) ended 25.57 points or 0.89% lower to 2859.12, taking the year-to-date performance to -15.04%. The top active stocks today were OCBC Bank, which declined 0.46%, SingTel, which declined 0.26%, UOB, which declined 0.10%, DBS, which declined 0.36% and Global Logistic, with a 2.44% fall. The FTSE ST Mid Cap Index declined 0.48%, while the FTSE ST Small Cap Index rose 0.03%.Brent crude was last down 0.2% at $45.38 a barrel. U.S. oil prices fell 0.4% on Thursday amid signs of robust US production despite data showing a lower-than-expected increase in US oil inventories and a decline in the number of working oil-rigs in the country. Gold prices were down 0.3% at $1,066.70 a troy ounce - The EBRD has extended a total of $70m in loans to Mongolia’s Khan Bank, aimed at small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The EBRD package will include financing for SMEs and their value chains, sustainable energy projects designed to improve energy efficiency, a risk-sharing facility that will help Khan Bank clients access longer-term financing, and an increase in the trade finance facility, which helps companies perform export and import operations. The sustainable energy part of the financing package, which is $10m, is part of the special financing framework, Mongolian Sustainable Energy Financing Facility. The EBRD has such facilities in many countries of operations; they are part of the Bank’s drive for green economy transition. The EBRD is also providing technical cooperation as part of the sustainable energy financing portion, funded by the multi-donor EBRD Shareholder Special Fund. Khan Bank, which has around 500 offices across Mongolia, is one of the largest commercial banks in the country. The loan agreements were signed by Khan Bank CEO Norihiko Kato and the head of the EBRD office in Mongolia, Matthieu Le Blan.

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The European Review

By Patrick Artus, chief economist at Natixis

France needs supply-side policies to stimulate growth

Tuesday, 14 February 2012 Written by 
France needs supply-side policies to stimulate growth France’s ailing economy urgently requires stimulation – and this must come from supply-side policies. Previously buoyed by borrowing, the strength of real estate and an increase in fiscal deficits, France is now suffering from significant economic weaknesses that can only be overcome by a stimulation of supply via institutional, tax and labour market reforms.

France’s ailing economy urgently requires stimulation – and this must come from supply-side policies. Previously buoyed by borrowing, the strength of real estate and an increase in fiscal deficits, France is now suffering from significant economic weaknesses that can only be overcome by a stimulation of supply via institutional, tax and labour market reforms.


The French economy is experiencing a decline in investment, an inability to rebuild exports, continuing market share losses and a rapid rise in unemployment. Although previously bolstered by an increase in private sector indebtedness, growth in residential construction (until 2008), and a temporary increase in fiscal deficits, economic growth has fallen to virtually zero as of the second quarter of 2011.

However, unlike similar situations in Spain and the UK, France’s underperformance is due to a deterioration of supply rather than a decline in demand. Certainly, France’s weak economy cannot be blamed on a rapid correction in the fiscal deficit, nor to a decline in real wages. In fact, there has been a worsening of supply-side conditions since the late 1990s, highlighted by a decline in profitability, the tightening of profit margins (particularly in the industrial sector) and the distortion of income sharing in favour of wages and to the detriment of profits, itself the equivalent to an economy-wide fall in profit margins.

The result is a country where companies are hampered by poor levels of investment. Indeed, the economy has become stuck in a mid-market product range, as portrayed by the sharp drop in French exports caused by an appreciation in the euro. Furthermore, France is exhibiting advanced deindustrialisation (in the past decade both manufacturing employment and manufacturing volume as a proportion of GDP have steadily decreased), weak growth of companies (limiting the number of companies big enough to export) and a high proportion of small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) that are prematurely sold to large groups. 

Reforms to restore the economy

Supply-side reforms are urgently required: in particular, tax reform to reduce companies’ welfare contributions, labour market negotiations to take into account both wages and employment, and institutional reforms to encourage the growth of innovative SMEs.

Firstly, France must reduce welfare contributions, especially those paid by companies. It is well known that welfare contributions negatively affect employment. Therefore to boost the supply of goods, and the demand for labour, there needs to be a reduction in government expenditure on wages and welfare benefits, or (as happened in Germany and the UK in 2007 and 2011 respectively) an increase in VAT.

Secondly, the country’s labour market lacks a corrective force in periods of rising unemployment. Current pay talks are purely wage-based and do not take into account the need to reduce unemployment and create new jobs. The result is that increasing unemployment does not have a significant impact on wages and therefore unemployment levels can remain high for long periods without reducing wages.

Therefore the government needs to ensure that pay talks involve both wages and jobs, in order to create a trade-off between wage increases and job creation. Certainly, the close link between unemployment and wage increases can be seen in Germany, Spain, Italy and the UK – a labour market scenario that France must replicate.

Finally, institutional reforms are needed to boost SME growth. France’s already weak export levels are compounded by the low proportion of companies big enough to export their goods. In order to stimulate growth among SMEs, France should create a Small Business Act and Small Business Administration to improve relationships between large groups and their subcontractors, simplify administrative paperwork and improve cooperation between companies and the education system.

Going forward

In the short term, these reforms (government spending cuts, a VAT hike, reduction in wages in exchange for additional jobs, etc.) would inevitably lead to a fall in demand. But the current view – that the solution to the economy’s woes lies in stimulating demand – must be abandoned in favour of supply-side policies if a recovery is to be achieved. 

The acute question remains in play: Is there a political party ready to carry out this programme after the presidential elections?

Patrick Artus

A graduate of Ecole Polytechnique, of Ecole Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Adminstration Economique and of Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris, Patrick Artus is today the Chief Economist at Natixis. He began his career in 1975 where his work included economic forecasting and modelisation. He then worked at the Economics Department of the OECD (1980), before becoming Head of Research at the ENSAE. Thereafter, Patrick taught seminars on research at Paris Dauphine (1982) and was Professor at a number of Universities (including Dauphine, ENSAE, Centre des Hautes Etudes de l'Armement, Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées and HEC Lausanne).

Patrick is now Professor of Economics at University Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne. He combines these responsibilities with his research work at Natixis. Patrick was awarded "Best Economist of the year 1996" by the "Nouvel Economiste", and today is a member of the council of economic advisors to the French Prime Minister. He is also a board member at Total and Ipsos.


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