Sunday 1st May 2016
NEWS TICKER: Central bank policy is still dominating the trading agenda, even though most analysts believe that the Fed will, if it does move, move only once this year and will raise rates by a quarter of a percent. The statement of the US FOMC was terse and most likely signals extreme caution on its part, though there is a belief that hawkish voices are rising in the committee. The reality is though that the US economic growth story is slowing. Many think the June meeting will spark the uplift. Let’s see. The US dollar is continuing to lose ground across the board after data showed the US economy expanded at its slowest pace since the second quarter of 2009, according to the BEA, which FTSE Global Markets reported on last Friday. GDP increased at a 0.5% annualised rate - versus an expected 0.7% - after rising 1.4% in the fourth quarter of 2015 as personal consumption failed to boost growth in spite of low gasoline prices. Central bank caution makes sense in that context, however timing will be sensitive. If the central bank moves in the autumn it threatens to unbutton the presidential elections; but the reality is that mixed data will emanate from the US over this quarter which will make a June decision difficult. It’s tough being an FOMC member right now. The Bank of Japan meanwhile signalled its intention to stay the course this week with current policy, which discombobulated the markets. The Japanese markets were closed today for a public holiday, so it won’t be entirely clear if the market will suffer for the central bank’s decision. Certainly if fell 3.61% yesterday and is down 5% on the week. so the omens aren’t great. Of course, the pattern that is well established of late is that as the market falls, the yen appreciates. The yen was trading at 107.14 against the dollar last time we looked, compared with 108 earlier in the session, having at times touched 111/$1 yesterday (the lowest point for more than 18 months) The month to date has seen a rise in both the short term and long term volatility gauges. Coinciding with the rise, Nikkei 225 Index Structured Warrant activity has also significantly picked up. Nikkei 225 Structured Warrants showed increased activity with daily averaged traded value up 33% month-on-month. The Nikkei 225 Index Structured Warrants had significant increase in trading activity year-on-year with total turnover up by 6.8 times. – ASIAN TRADING SESSION - Australia's ASX 200 reversed early losses to close up 26.77 points, or 0.51%, at 5,252.20, adding 0.3% for the week. The uptick today was driven by gains in the heavily-weighted financials sub-index, as well as the energy and materials sub-indexes. In South Korea, the Kospi finished down 6.78 points, or 0.34%, at 1,994.15, while in Hong Kong, the Hang Seng index fell 1.37%. Chinese mainland markets were mixed, with the Shanghai composite dropping 7.13 points, or 0.24 percent, at 2,938.45, while the Shenzhen composite finished nearly flat. The Straits Times Index (STI) ended 12.42 points or 0.43% lower to 2862.3, taking the year-to-date performance to -0.71%. The top active stocks today were SingTel, which gained 0.26%, DBS, which declined 1.03%, NOL, which gained closed unchanged, OCBC Bank, which declined 1.00% and CapitaLand, with a 0.63% fall. The FTSE ST Mid Cap Index gained 0.60%, while the FTSE ST Small Cap Index rose 0.49%. Structured warrants on Asian Indices have continued to be active in April. YTD, the STI has generated a total return of 1.3%. This compares to a decline of 4.9% for the Nikkei 225 Index and a decline of 6.3% of the Hang Seng Index. Of the structured warrants available on Asian Indices, the Hang Seng Index Structured Warrants have remained the most active in the year to date with Structured Warrants on the Nikkei 225 Index and STI Index the next most active – FUND FLOWS – BAML reports that commodity fund flows went back to positive territory after taking a breather last week, supported again by inflows into gold funds. “The asset class is currently the best performer, with year to date % of AUM inflow at 15%, far ahead of all other asset classes. Global EM debt flows reflected the bullish turn of the market on EMs, recording the tenth consecutive week of positive flows. On the duration front, short-term funds recorded a marginal inflow, keeping a positive sign for the last four weeks. The mid-term IG funds continue to record strong inflows for a ninth week. But it looks like investors have started to embrace duration to reach for yield, as inflows into longer-term funds have recorded a cumulative 0.8% inflow in the past two weeks,” says the BofA Merrill Lynch Global Research team – GREEN BONDS - Banco Nacional de Costa Rica is the latest issuer with a $500m bond to finance wind, solar, hydro and wastewater projects. The bond has a coupon of 5.875% and matures on April 25th 2021. Banco Nacional will rely on Costa Rican environmental protection regulations to determine eligible projects. This is the fourth green bond issuance in Latin America, according to the Climate Bonds Initiative (CBI). Actually, Costa Rica is one of the global leaders in terms of renewable energy use. In the first quarter of 2016 it sourced 97.14% of its power from renewables. Hydro's share alone was 65.62%. – SOVEREIGN DEBT - After coming to market with a 100 year bond last week, the Kingdom of Belgium (rated Aa3/AA/AA) has opened books on a dual tranche bond; the first maturing in seven years; the second in 50 years, in a deal managed by Barclays, Credit Agricole, JP Morgan, Morgan Stanley, Natixis and Société Générale. Managers have marketed the October 22nd 2023 tranche at 11 basis points (bps) through mid-swaps and the June 22nd 2066 tranche in the high teens over the mid of the 1.75% 2066 French OAT – LONGEVITY REINSURANCE - Prudential Retirement Insurance and Annuity Company (PRIAC) and U.K. insurer Legal & General say they have just completed their third longevity reinsurance transaction together, further evidence that longevity reinsurance continues to be a vehicle for UK insurers seeking relief from pension liabilities exposed to longevity risk. “This latest transaction builds on our relationship with Legal & General and solidifies the platform from which future business can be written,” explains Bill McCloskey, vice president, Longevity Risk Transfer at Prudential Retirement. “It's also a testament to our experience in the reinsurance space and our capacity to support the growth of the U.K. longevity risk transfer market.” Under the terms of the new agreement, PRIAC will issue reinsurance for a portion of Legal & General's bulk annuity business, providing benefit security for thousands of retirees in the UK. PRIAC has completed three reinsurance transactions with Legal & General since October 2014 – VIETNAM - Standard & Poor's Ratings Services has affirmed its 'BB-' long-term and 'B' short-term sovereign credit ratings on Vietnam. The outlook is stable. At the same time, we affirmed our 'axBB+/axB' ASEAN regional scale rating on Vietnam. The ratings, says S&P, reflect the country's lower middle-income, rising debt burden, banking sector weakness, and the country's emerging institutional settings that hamper policy responsiveness. Even so, the ratings agency acknowledges these strengths are offset by Vietnam's sound external settings that feature adequate foreign exchange reserves and a modest external debt burden. The country has a lower middle income but comparatively diversified economy. S&P estimates GDP per capita at about US$2,200 in 2016. “Recent improvements in macroeconomic stability have supported strong performance in the sizable foreign-owned and export-focused manufacturing sector (electronics, telephones, and clothing). This strength will likely be offset by weaker domestic activity as the impetus to growth stemming from low household and company sector leverage is hampered by weak banks and government enterprises, and shortfalls in infrastructure. We expect real GDP per capita growth to rise by 5.3% in 2016 (2015: 5.6%) and average 5.2% over 2016-2019, reflecting modest outlooks for Vietnam's trading partners. Uncertain conditions in export markets and the slow pace in addressing government enterprise reforms, fiscal consolidation, and banking sector resolution add downside risks to this growth outlook – RUSSIA - Russia's central bank held interest rates steady at 11% today, in line with expectations, although it hinted that if inflation kept on falling it would cut soon. Last month, the bank held rates steady, warning that inflation risks remained "high" and that the then oil price rise could be "unsustainable." However, the decision came at a time of renewed hope for Russia's beleaguered economy and the country's oil industry with commodity prices showing tentative signs of recovery. The central bank noted that it "sees the positive processes of inflation slowdown and inflation expectations decline, as well as shifts in the economy which anticipate the beginning of its recovery growth. At the same time, inflation risks remain elevated." Yann Quelenn, market analyst at Swissquote explains: "The ruble has continued to appreciate ever since it reached its all-time low against the dollar in early January. At that time, more than 82 ruble could be exchanged for a single dollar note. Now, the USDRUB has weakened below 65 and even more upside pressures on the currency continue as the rebound in oil prices persists. The outlook for Russian oil revenues is more positive despite the global supply glut. Expectations for increased oil demand over the coming years and the fear of peak oil are driving the black commodity’s prices higher – MARKET DATA RELEASES TODAY - Other data that analysts will be looking out for today include Turkey’s trade balance; GDP from Spain; the unemployment rate from Norway; mortgage approvals from UK; CPI and GDP from the eurozone; CPI from Italy; and South Africa’s trade balance – FTSE GLOBAL MARKETS – Our offices will be closed on Monday, May 2ndt. We wish our readers and clients a happy and restful May bank holiday and we look forward to reconnecting on Tuesday May 3rd. Happy Holidays!

Latest Video

It shouldn't be this difficult; update on Dodd Frank rulemaking and its consequences

Tuesday, 22 May 2012
It shouldn't be this difficult; update on Dodd Frank rulemaking and its consequences We need to make our rules more black and white, argues CFTC Commissioner Scott D O'Malia, in a speech to the Annual Nuclear Industry Conference. He says that cost-effective compliance can be achieved by clear articulation of currenregulatory requirements. Moreover, the objective in implementing the Dodd-Frank Act should be compliance, and not enforcement. Commercial firms utilising the futures and swaps markets to mitigate risk should be focused on managing that risk, and not on the risk that they will take a misstep into a regulatory trap. We reproduce the speech in full below.

We need to make our rules more black and white, argues CFTC Commissioner Scott D O'Malia, in a speech to the Annual Nuclear Industry Conference. He says that cost-effective compliance can be achieved by clear articulation of currenregulatory requirements. Moreover, the objective in implementing the Dodd-Frank Act should be compliance, and not enforcement. Commercial firms utilising the futures and swaps markets to mitigate risk should be focused on managing that risk, and not on the risk that they will take a misstep into a regulatory trap. We reproduce the speech in full below.


When Alex Flint asked me to speak to this group, I jumped at the opportunity. I have worked extensively in the energy policy arena and miss discussing energy issues including financial challenges, nuclear waste solutions, Separative Work Units, heat rates and financial transmission rights.My time these days is instead spent discussing margin methodology, swaps and futures clearing, high frequency trading and, of course, a cast of characters including MF Global and J.P. Morgan. My past and present do have a nexus: futures and swaps markets provide the energy markets their primary means of risk mitigation through hedging opportunities and price discovery. Like nuclear energy, financial markets are strongly linked to technology. I have drawn on my energy/technology experience, and more specifically, my work with the nuclear industry, in addressing the tough regulatory issues present in today’s financial markets.

One thing I have learned after years of working with nuclear engineers is that the little things matter and specific requirements aimed at producing specified outcomes are always preferred over uncertainty. Today, I would like to expound on these two topics of technology and certainty as they apply to the Dodd-Frank Act rulemakings and our financial markets in general. Before we get too deep into that discussion, I’d like to take a moment and provide a high-level overview of the linkages between the CFTC, financial reforms embodied in the Dodd-Frank Act, which is now a part of the Commodity Exchange Act, and the utility business.

Dodd-Frank Primer

The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act is an 848-page law passed in June 2010 and, like many such statutes, is unimaginatively named after its principal authors, Senator Chris Dodd and Representative Barney Frank. The Dodd-Frank Act is the most significant financial reform since the Great Depression. With respect to the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, which wasn’t even around during the Great Depression (though one of its predecessors, the Grain Futures Administration, was), it implements three main objectives. First, it requires all swap dealers to clear their trades to reduce counterparty risk and the interconnectedness of large financial institutions such as the “Too-Big-To-Fail” banks. Second, it mandates that cleared products be traded on designated contract markets or newly created swap execution facilities. Finally, it requires that all trades whether cleared or traded over-the-counter be reported to a new registered entity called a swap data repository.

Within this framework aimed at bringing an unprecedented level of transparency into the $600+ trillion swaps market, end-users and other “Main Street” swaps participants whose operations did not contribute to the financial meltdown are explicitly recognized through exemptions, exceptions, and accommodations from and to many of the clearing, trading and reporting requirements.

Remember, part of the title of the legislation is “Wall Street Reform.” However, it is ultimately the role of the CFTC to flesh out the extent to which these commercial entities will be able to continue to hedge their risk and absorb the additional costs without negatively impacting their ability to remain competitive.

Thus far, the Commission has drafted and passed 33 final rules. Roughly half have been deemed “Major Rules” under the Congressional Review Act, meaning that the Office of Management and Budget has determined—based on submissions by the Commission—that each of these rules will result in or is likely to result in: (1) an annual effect on the economy of $100 million or more; (2) a major increase in costs or prices for consumers, individual industries, Federal, state, or local government agencies, or geographic regions; or (3) significant adverse effects on competition, employment, investment, productivity, innovation, or the ability of U.S.-based enterprises to compete with foreign-based enterprises in domestic and export markets.

Unfortunately, many of the rules have shifted the application of statutory mandates from a flexible principles-based regime to a prescriptive rules-based scheme. While I agree that there is generally a preference for the legal certainty that specific versus general mandates provide, many of these new rules are unnecessarily complicated, confusing, and, in some cases, redundant. The result is that entities whose financial resources are already limited by the continued economic downturn must set aside additional resources to pay for more legal and compliance personnel who will be tasked with sorting through thousands of pages of rules to ensure that these entities don’t run afoul of new regulation.The Commission needs to make its rules more black and white.

We can foster cost-effective compliance by clearly articulating the purpose and desired effect of our regulatory requirements. The Commission’s objective in implementing the Dodd-Frank Act should be compliance, and not enforcement. Commercial firms utilizing the futures and swaps markets to mitigate risk should be focused on managing that risk, and not on the risk that they will take a misstep into a regulatory trap.

We need to ensure that hedging and price discovery remain cost effective, encourage liquidity formation, and continue to be the hallmarks of our jurisdictional markets in support of, and attendant to, the goals of the Dodd-Frank Act.The poster-child for this regulatory confusion is the recently finalized swap dealer definition.

Like a multi-step math problem, you need to follow a precise order of operations and show your work in order to get the right answer. While I agree that the de minimis exemption currently set at $8 billion provides a sizeable margin of error, the reality of relying on a de minimis is that, but for the level of the exemption, you are a swap dealer. Would you rather be expressly carved out of the swap dealer designation, or carved out by a temporary technicality subject to change? And how does it make you feel knowing that you could have avoided the order of operations, the de minimis, and ramping up of legal personnel if the Commission had utilised its authority under the statute to simply carve you out based on the nature of your swap trading activities? Don’t forget to show your work.

How It Impacts Energy Producers

One commonality among all end-users is the desire to have clear rules that don’t interfere with their ability to cost-effectively access to swaps and futures markets to hedge commercial risk—which they have in spades. The level of sophistication among commercial firms varies as does the extent of their trading. However, their primary business or ordinary business is producing or manufacturing products, not trading.

Futures and swaps markets are both critical to price discovery and hedging. Swap market users, however, generally require more customized trades unique in location, duration or size that don’t neatly match-up with standardized futures contracts.In implementing the massive Dodd-Frank Act, I believe the Commission has the responsibility to implement clear rules that provide end-users with bright regulatory lines.

Unfortunately, I believe we have not achieved that objective and instead have crafted a definition for swap dealers that is vague and complex. Ultimately, this definition will drive some firms out of the market or force them to reduce their market exposure and hurt liquidity. Let me give you a specific example.

Large Municipal Power Case Study: The Problem with the “Special Entity” Threshold

The CFTC’s final entities rule provides for two separate de minimis exemptions from the swap dealer definition based on the nature of the counterparties. There is a general de minimis threshold of $8 billion (which transitions to $3 billion after five years) applicable to all entities and a $25 million sub-threshold for a swap dealer’s dealing with so-called “special entities.”

The term “special entity” is defined in the Dodd-Frank Act to include, among other entities, municipalities. The legislation and newly adopted regulations impose additional external business conduct requirements on swap dealers and major swap participants in connection with their dealings with special entities.The Commission’s regulations create huge problems for these entities. For example, the Large Public Power Council (LPPC) is an organization representing 24 of the largest public power systems in the nation. Its members own and operate over 86,000 megawatts of generation capacity and nearly 35,000 circuit miles of high voltage transmission lines. Since LPPC members are municipally-owned, they are “special entities” under the Dodd-Frank Act.

To date, the majority of LPPC’s utility operations-related swaps are executed with non-bank firms in the regional electric and natural gas industry that are prepared to offer the necessary customized arrangements. Given the size of their operations, the $25m de minimis threshold was set at an unworkable level, which will drive many non-bank firms—including some of you here today—away from trading with municipal firms in order to avoid the dreaded dealer designation. For example, a single one-year 100 MW swap or a single three-year 10,000 MMBtu/day swap (at a 62% capacity factor) may have a notional value of $25 million.

Therefore, a single swap could trigger the requirement that a firm register as a swap dealer for trading as a result of its trade with a municipal utility. This could not possibly have been what Congress intended. Remember, part of the title of the legislation is “Wall Street Reform.”Without healthy competition in these markets provided by commercial firms, municipalities will be left to trade with the likes of J.P. Morgan, Bank of America, Citigroup and Goldman Sachs. Without competition for that business, we all know what will happen to costs.I predict that as more people read the swap dealer definition, or more precisely, the preamble—and do pay attention to the footnotes—we will find more examples of misapplied rules that will diminish competition by consolidating swaps trading with Wall Street bank counterparties and by edging out commercial firms.

Pricing will go up as liquidity falls. I suspect that firms like yours will have to choose between two equally untenable choices: pay more or hedge less. The ultimate loser is the customer.The real shame is that the Commission could have been more specific in excluding commercial firms from the swap dealer definition and forcing them to rely on a complicated test that by and large focuses on utilities or cooperatives. Congress was very clear about exempting commercial end-users and small banks from the swap dealer definition. I only wish the Commission could have done the same.

Before I move on to technology, I also would like you to be aware that, as commercial firms, you are all hedging physical and financial risk, and we have protected that activity. In fact, at this point, we have defined hedging four different ways. This of course is good news for your legal counsel, but confusing for your business units.We have Regulation 1.3(z), we have hedging rules as they apply to determining your position in compliance with position limits, hedge rules for the swap dealer determination (physical only), and hedging rules for determining who is a major swap participant (financial and physical).

Another hedge rule is coming out with the final rule end-user exception to clearing, so be ready for that. I suspect most of you won’t need to worry about the hedge exemption in the major swap participant definition, so you only need to focus on three to four different hedge definitions. Lucky you!


As I explained earlier, I spent years working on Capitol Hill primarily focused on energy policy roles including five years as the Senate Clerk of the Energy and Water Subcommittee on Appropriations. I had a dream job of funding cutting edge energy sciences, including nuclear energy, while advancing state of the art computing funded by the U.S. Department of Energy.

One area that I was fascinated with was the role technology played in all aspects of energy research and development. The capacity to perform computer simulation on plant siting, design and material testing greatly reduced the necessity to perform costly trial-and-error experiments.

Advances in materials expanded our capacity to increase load, temperature and extend the life of critical components, which can have a direct and material impact on a company’s balance sheet.A great example of this research partnership was the Nuclear Power 2010 program that cost-shared the design of new modern reactors to increase safety features and lower the engineering and operational costs. By standardizing the design, licensing, training and operations are made identical for each reactor of that design—a far more efficient process than the ad hoc approach used before.

We made this program a top priority and increased funding to complete the program as soon as possible. I am pleased to hear that this investment has paid off and a new design has been licensed.

Keeping Pace with an Evolving Market

When I came to the Commission a little over two-and-a-half years ago, I was well aware of the modern trading and matching engines used to trade equities and futures and the explosion in trade volumes across the globe. However, I was struck by the lack of computer surveillance and automation applied in the oversight of our markets. The Commission was not organized to effectively drive automated surveillance of futures and swaps markets. I have made correcting this problem and adapting technology among my top priorities. The good news is that we have reorganized the Commission, creating a new office of Data and Technology. This new group of technology experts and market surveillance staff is now primed to focus on deploying automated surveillance to expand our oversight programs.

Flash Crash – Technology Matters

Technology improvements are not only necessary for the Commission; exchanges and other CFTC registered entities also have made these improvements. Take the Flash Crash of 2010, which also impacted your businesses. To be brief, futures and equities markets dropped 1,000 points and then recovered in the span of 20 minutes. Many of your stocks saw the bottom fall out as traders withdrew their orders from the markets. The sell-off started in the S&P 500 futures contracts, but quickly spread to the equities markets. After careful investigation it was decided that new circuit breakers and automated market pauses were needed to prevent another automated computer sell off.

HFT: Define It, Study It, Make Sense of It

Immediately after the Flash Crash, the blame was largely directed at high frequency traders who some refer to as the new breed of market makers. While these traders behave like others, their presence in the market is growing and their practices are poorly understood. I have established a subcommittee comprised of four working groups within the Technology Advisory Committee, which I chair, to attempt to define this discipline so that it can be studied, monitored, and frankly discussed.

I expect the working groups to complete their work and make recommendations to the Commission later this year on defining high frequency trading within the universe of automated trading.

Similar efforts to understand high frequency traders and their strategies are underway in other jurisdictions as we all try to get up to speed on their activities and market impact, if any. We can’t ignore the fact that automated trading strategies provide and support increasing, and in some cases a majority of, market liquidity, and yet we have little to no knowledge about their role, trading strategies and methodologies. We need more information. Our first step should be to define them.

Next, we need to study them. Only after that will we be best able to develop policy solutions that are appropriate to ensure all market players are operating within the rules and we have in place the appropriate safeguards to prevent dysfunctional markets'

Dodd-Frank Rulemakings: We Can Do Better

In closing, let me assure you that I am working very hard to ensure that our rulemaking process is as transparent and open as possible. We are pressed to develop rules without fully understanding the outcomes.

We must look at developing a more thorough process for conducting cost-benefit analyses that appropriately inform our rulemakings of the challenges facing the market, especially with regard to the necessary integration of technology across all of the new execution, clearing, and data platforms and models, including swap execution facilities, futures commission merchants, clearinghouses and swap data repositories.Unfortunately, we have minimized the role of performing a cost benefit analysis to a check-the-box exercise, rather than developing a range of rule alternatives and adopting the most cost-effective.

In February, I asked the Office of Management and Budget for technical assistance in conducting our future cost-benefit analyses, and that request has been answered affirmatively. I am pleased to report that the Commission will get one staff member from the “Cost-Benefit Team” within the Office of Management and Budget to provide technical assistance going forward.We must be mindful of the massive burden these new regulations will have on all business, but in particular Main Street businesses, who did not contribute to the financial meltdown of 2008 and 2009. Our rule should be clear and protective of end-users who need futures and swap markets to hedge risk.

We should be honest and thorough in understanding all of the cumulative costs imposed by these regulations. And finally, we should avoid further consolidating risk within and minimizing competition with the largest Wall Street banks.I am not at all convinced that these reforms will prevent the “Too-Big-To-Fail” scenario. Yes, we are going to implement comprehensive supervision of Wall Street swap trading and expand access to clearing for all entities. But, in doing so, we must be more sensitive to the massive costs these rules will impose on all entities and the impact this will have on cost-effective risk management.

In broad terms, developing regulatory standards is similar to developing an energy policy that encourages the deployment of a variety of energy sources and technologies. I am skeptical that the government will be any more successful in developing a regulatory scheme that can anticipate and evolve with financial markets innovation than it has in picking winners and losers in energy technologies. Both objectives require regulatory flexibility and the ability to adapt to a changing marketplace.I will continue to fight for rules that will ensure that commercial firms like yours can cost-effectively hedge both physical and financial risk. I certainly wish you all success in developing cost-effective and safe nuclear technology that addresses our nuclear waste challenges.



  • Comment Link Jim Quan Saturday, 26 May 2012 06:12 posted by Jim Quan

    For those interested in trading and investments, Mr. Edgar Perez, author of The Speed Traders, will be leading the seminar The Speed Traders Workshop 2012 Beijing on May 30th and Shanghai on June 6th. He will touch upon how high frequency traders leverage profitable strategies to find alpha in equities, options, futures and FX. The Speed Traders Workshop 2012 will open the doors to the secretive world of high-frequency trading, the most controversial form of investing today, and reveal how high-frequency trading players are succeeding in the global markets and driving the development of algorithmic trading at breakneck speeds from the U.S. and Europe to India, Singapore and Brazil.

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  • Comment Link Jim Quan Tuesday, 22 May 2012 16:31 posted by Jim Quan

    For those interested in trading and investments, Mr. Edgar Perez, author of The Speed Traders, will be leading the seminar The Speed Traders Workshop 2012 China on May 30th. He will touch upon how high frequency traders leverage profitable strategies to find alpha in equities, options, futures and FX. The Speed Traders Workshop 2012 will open the doors to the secretive world of high-frequency trading, the most controversial form of investing today, and reveal how high-frequency trading players are succeeding in the global markets and driving the development of algorithmic trading at breakneck speeds from the U.S. and Europe to India, Singapore and Brazil.

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